CM: SWC Credit – Energy and Emissions Optimization of Solid Waste Collection 

SWC Environmental Performance KPI

SWC Credit: Energy and Emissions Optimization of Solid Waste Collection 

(1-3 Points, Reciprocal)

Credit Summary

Reduce fuel consumption and lower air emissions resulting from waste collection and Demonstrate Fleet Fuel Economy, Collection Route Efficiency or Fleet Criteria Emissions of solid waste (including MSW, Bulky Waste, Recyclables, Organics and C&D) collection per this table.

Impact Summary

Increasing fuel efficiency reduces unnecessary air emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The Federal Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) outlines vehicles that emit CO2 at thresholds lower than the compliance levels in current vehicle standards (EPA: low GHG-emitting vehicle). According to the EPA, the transportation sector is one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, responsible for 28 percent of US greenhouse gas emissions in 2018. American transportation emits about 1.9 billion tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere annually. Green vehicles use alternative energy sources like biodiesel, ethanol, hydrogen or electricity. 

Submittal Requirements 

To meet this requirement, see the EPA provided a table with the standards for heavy duty highway engines in order to meet the LEV standards: shown below. Documentation must be provided proving that these standards have been met. 

Case Study and Benefits

This study describes an attempt to design and develop an appropriate collection, transportation and disposal plan for the twin cities of Pakistan by using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques to determine the minimum cost/distance/time efficient collection paths for the transportation of the solid wastes to the landfill sites. The existing landfill sites for the cities are not technically viable and environmentally acceptable and are thus damaging to the environment due to their location and the type of waste dumped.

Other resources

Referenced Standards and Definitions

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Intent and Requirements 

Intent

To reduce fuel consumption and lower air emissions resulting from waste collection activities.

Local Government & Industry Requirements

Demonstrate Fleet Fuel Economy, Collection Route Efficiency or Fleet Criteria Emissions of solid waste (including MSW, Bulky Waste, Recyclables, Organics and C&D) collection per the following criteria:

Option 1 Option 2
Tier 1: (1 Point) Demonstrate fleet efficiency of 3.4 miles per gallon/gallons diesel equivalent.

Or

Demonstrate fuel economy of <2.8 annual gallons per ton of waste collected.
Tier 2: (1 Point) Demonstrate fleet efficiency of 3.55 miles per gallon/gallons diesel equivalent. Or Demonstrate fuel economy of <2.7 annual gallons per ton of waste collected.
Tier 3 (1 point) Demonstrate fleet efficiency of 3.75 miles per gallon/gallons diesel equivalent. Or Demonstrate fuel economy of <2.55 annual gallons per ton of waste collected.

Tier 1: (1 point)

Percentage of Alternative Fueled collection vehicles:     

  • 30 percent or more use of Renewable fuels in collection vehicles or 30 percent of total fuel consumption for.
  • 60 percent or more from Alternative/Low-Carbon Intensity fuels in collection vehicles or 60 percent of total fuel consumption for collection.

Tier 2: (1 point)

Percentage of Alternative Fueled collection vehicles:     

  •  50 percent or more use of Renewable fuels in collection vehicles or 50 percent of total fuel consumption for collection.
  • 95 percent or more from Alternative/Low-Carbon Intensity fuels in collection vehicles or 95 percent of total fuel consumption for collection.

Or

Demonstrate that annual fleet emissions meet Federal Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Standards for Heavy Duty Highway Engines in 40 CFR 88.105-94

Potential Strategies:

The Big Picture

The goal of this credit is to increase fuel efficiency and lower air emissions of MSW collection vehicles. With the transportation sector as one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, the EPA’s Low Emission Vehicle Standards will help to increase the number of MSW vehicles on the road with improved fuel efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. To meet the requirements of the EPA’s LEV standards, see the table below.

Why We Care

Increasing fuel efficiency reduces unnecessary air emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The Federal Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) outlines vehicles that emit CO2 at thresholds lower than the compliance levels in current vehicle standards (EPA: low GHG-emitting vehicle). According to the EPA, the transportation sector is one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, responsible for 28 percent of US greenhouse gas emissions in 2018. 

American transportation emits about 1.9 billion tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere annually. Green vehicles are more fuel consumption efficient, using fewer gallons per mile traveled. Green vehicles implement alternative energy sources from gasoline or diesel, like biodiesel, ethanol, hydrogen or electricity. The American truck fleet emitted about 530 million metric tons of carbon dioxide in 2013. The average fuel efficiency of one MSW collection truck was estimated as 0.90 0.44 km/L (2.12 1.03 mi/gal), and this same truck would generate 42 metric tons of CO2 equivalents per year. That is more than the amount a large sports utility vehicle would emit if it drove six times the distance MSW collection trucks average.

How to Meet the Requirements

The EPA has provided a table with the standards for heavy duty highway engines in order to meet the LEV standards:

Case Study

Municipal solid waste collection route optimization using geospatial techniques: a case study of two metropolitan cities of Pakistan

This study describes an attempt to design and develop an appropriate collection, transportation and disposal plan for the twin cities of Pakistan by using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques to determine the minimum cost/distance/time efficient collection paths for the transportation of the solid wastes to the landfill sites. In addition to this, identification of solid waste disposal sites and appropriately managing them is a challenging task to many developing countries and Pakistan is no exception to that. The existing landfill sites for the twin cities are not technically viable and environmentally acceptable and are thus damaging to the environment due to their location and the type of waste dumped. Therefore, the second aim of our study was to find out the suitable landfill sites for the twin cities and the study employed Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods to combine necessary factors considered for landfill site selection for the twin cities. Hence, our present study has proved that GIS is a tool that can be used in integration with other techniques such as MCE for a identifying new landfill sites and it can help decision makers deal with real-world developmental and management issues.

Source: Municipal Solid Waste Collection Case Study

Referenced Standards

  • LEV
  • The Federal Low Emissions Vehicle Standards

Definitions

Air Emissions 

EPA Definition: Emissions is the term used to describe the gases and particles which are put into the air or emitted by various sources.

Bulky Waste 

EPA Definition: Refers to those items that are large enough to warrant special collection services separate from regular residential curbside collection. Examples include major appliances and furniture.

C&D 

Relevant ReTrac definitions:

Construction, Renovation and Demolition (CR&D) Waste – Construction, renovation and demolition (CR&D) waste, also referred to as demolition, land-clearing and construction waste (DLC), refers to waste generated by construction, renovation and demolition activities. It generally includes materials such as brick, painted wood, drywall, metal, cardboard, doors, windows, wiring, etc. It excludes materials from land clearing on areas not previously developed. It excludes materials from land clearing on areas not previously developed. CR&D waste can come from residential sources such as house renovations or from non-residential sources for example the construction or demolition of office buildings.

EPA Definition– debris generated during the construction, renovation and demolition of buildings, roads, and bridges. Construction and demolition (C&D) materials are generated when new building and civil-engineering structures are built and when existing buildings and civil-engineering structures are renovated or demolished (including deconstruction activities). C&D materials often contain bulky, heavy materials such as: Concrete, Wood (from buildings), Asphalt (from roads and roofing shingles), Gypsum (the main component of drywall), Metals, Bricks, Glass, Plastics, Salvaged building components (doors, windows, and plumbing fixtures), Trees, stumps, earth, and rock from clearing sites

CORR Definition of C&D materials – Building materials from the construction, renovation or demolition of building structures (excluding land clearing, grubbing, and excavation materials).

Collection Route Efficiency 

SWANA Definition: Measurements of efficiency or productivity of a collection vehicle from the time it leaves the maintenance yard until it returns from collecting solid waste or recyclable materials and delivering them to solid waste management facilities. Efficiency may be measured in various ways, including stops/route, time/route, cycling time, time between stops, etc.

Federal Low Emissions Vehicle Standards 

Info here

Fleet Criteria Emissions 

EPA Definition: carbon monoxide, lead, ground-level ozone, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

Fleet Efficiency 

Geotab Definition: Fleet efficiency is calculated based on a number of moving parts, including productivity, fuel consumption, emissions, routes, costs and driver safety.

Fleet Fuel Economy 

UCSUSA Definition: Also known as “fuel economy,” fuel efficiency is a measure of how far a vehicle can travel per unit of fuel. In the United States, this is expressed as “miles per gallon” (mpg).

Fuel Consumption 

Collins Dictionary Definition: Fuel consumption is the rate at which an engine uses fuel, expressed in units such as miles per gallon or liters per kilometer.

Heavy Duty Highway Engines 

Dieselnet Definition: Heavy-duty vehicles are defined as vehicles of GVWR (gross vehicle weight rating) of above 8,500 lbs in the federal jurisdiction and above 14,000 lbs in California (model year 1995 and later).

MPGGE 

EPA Definition: miles per gallon of gasoline-equivalent (MPGe). Think of this as being similar to MPG, but instead of presenting miles per gallon of the vehicle’s fuel type, it represents the number of miles the vehicle can go using a quantity of fuel with the same energy content as a gallon of gasoline. 

MSW 

EPA definition: Municipal solid waste (MSW) (also called trash) consists of everyday items such as product packaging, yard trimmings, furniture, clothing, bottles and cans, food, newspapers, appliances, electronics and batteries. Sources of MSW include residential waste (including waste from multi-family housing) and waste from commercial and institutional locations, such as businesses, schools and hospitals. The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) definition of MSW does not include industrial, hazardous or construction and demolition (C&D) waste. 

Organics 

SWANA Definition: Solid Wastes containing carbon compounds that are capable of being biologically degraded, including paper, Food Residuals, wood wastes, Yard Debris and plant wastes but not metals and glass or plastic. 

Recyclables 

SWANA Definition: Substance that can potentially be reused as or recycled into a recycled material or recycled product.

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